The Holocene, as depicted in Figure 1 below, is formally the current geological epoch and represents the previous ∼11,500 calendar years to present. During the Holocene, environmental change occurred naturally and Earth’s regulatory capacity maintained the conditions that enabled human development. Regular temperatures, freshwater availability and biogeochemical flows all stayed predominately in a narrow range. Now, in the primeval stages of the Anthropocene, human activities have reached Continue reading
Holland, John H. 1995. Hidden order: How complexity builds adaptation. Reading, MA: Helix Books, Addison-Wesley.
Relatively high and often extreme levels of variability and unpredictability currently characterize the amplitudes of Continue reading